International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD <p><strong>International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD)</strong> is peer- reviewed, Registered with NSDL on-line International Journal published monthly publication. IJAERD is Highly Impact journal from India, With Reference SJIF 2015 We have Secured <strong>62 Rank</strong> among 18000 Journal Registered in SJIF, Its a leading e-journal, under which we are encouraging and exploring newer ideas of current trends in Engineering by publishing papers containing pure knowledge.The Journal is started with noble effort to help the researchers in their work and also to share knowledge and research ideas.</p> <table width="524"> <tbody> <tr> <td><strong>ISSN(Online)</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>2348 - 4470</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>ISSN</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>2348 - 6406</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Review</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>Double-Blind</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>UGC span Number(old)</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td> 44839</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Frequency</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>Monthly</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Media Type(s)</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>Online</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Subscription Price</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>Contact Journal Management for Subscription</td> </tr> <tr> <td><strong>Language</strong></td> <td>:</td> <td>Text in English; Summaries in English</td> </tr> </tbody> </table> <p style="text-align: justify;"><strong>Subject Area(Focused but not limited to):</strong> Aeronautical Engineering, Agricultural Engineering, Audio Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Computer Science &amp; Engineering, Electronics &amp; Communications Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Engineering Chemistry, Engineering Management, Engineering Maths, Engineering Physics, Engineering Sciences, Industrial Engineering, Instrumentation Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Nano Engineering, Natural Sciences, Humanities, Network Engineering, Nuclear Engineering, Rubber Technology, Software Engineering, Structural Engineering, Systems Engineering, Telecommunication Engineering, Textile Engineering.</p> <p><strong>Important Dates:</strong></p> <p>Submission Last Date: 31/05/2022<br />Acceptance / Rejection Status: Within 15-20 Days<br />Paper Published: Within 15-20 Days<br />Paper publication Last Date: 05/06/2022</p> <p><strong>Salient Features:</strong></p> <ul> <li>Online paper Submission</li> <li>Strict Plagiarism Policy</li> <li>Peer-reviewed Journal</li> <li>Open Access Journal</li> <li>Reputed Editorial Board</li> <li>High Visibility &amp; Indexing</li> <li>High Impact Factor Journal</li> </ul> <p><strong>For the author's convenience, we strongly follow the following steps.</strong></p> <ul> <li>The response/answer to any query will be given within 12 hours.</li> <li>The paper will be reviewed within 10-15 days.</li> <li>The author will get their Acceptance/Rejection Notification within 10-15 days of submitting a paper.</li> <li>All the accepted papers will be open and accessible with a full PDF download.</li> </ul> <p><strong>With Warm Regards,</strong></p> <p>Prof. (Dr.) Alhaji Umar Lawal Aliyu<br />Chief Editor,IJAERD</p> KP JOURNAL PUBLICATION en-US International Journal of Advance Engineering and Research Development (IJAERD) 2348-6406 An Overview on Vortex Tube Applications https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5665 <p>Vortex tube is a simple device with no moving parts. It separates inlet high pressure stream of air into two<br>lower pressure streams of cooler temperature at one end and hotter temperature at other end. It is basically of counter flow<br>type and parallel flow type. It has many advantages and wide range of applications, mostly using counter flow owing to<br>better performance than parallel flow. Most of the applications reflect the benefits in terms of performance, energy,<br>compactness or as an alternative to the conventional method. Few applications are highlighted in this paper. Variable<br>temperature system uses vortex tube along with liquid nitrogen cooled heat exchanger to maintain lower temperature as<br>the biochemical samples are prone to change properties in unconditioned environment. In case of high speed machining<br>tools, vortex tube cooling improves the performance and tool life along with better finish of workpiece. Laser cutting<br>system uses vortex tube cooling to minimize heat affected zone. Vortex air coolers are preferred for different industrial<br>applications. The personal air suit uses vortex tube to allow workers to work under adverse conditions for longer hours.<br>Vortex tube refrigeration is alternative way to the conventional refrigeration in some applications.</p> Avdhoot N. Jejurkar Dr. Ajitkumar N. Shukla Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Review on Combustion Chamber Swirlers https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5666 <p>Swirl flows offer an interesting field of study for<br>aerospace and mechanical engineers in general and for<br>combustion engineers in particular since it involves complex<br>interaction of recirculation and turbulent mixing which aid flame<br>stabilization in combustion systems. Swirling flow generates<br>rotating flows, turbulence and free jet wakes at the downstream<br>of swirler in combustion chamber. So there is complex<br>interaction between pressure gradients and fluid flow. Swirling<br>jets are used as a means of controlling flames in combustion<br>chambers. Swirling flows in both reacting and non- reacting<br>conditions occur in wide range of applications such as gas<br>turbines, marine combustor burners, chemical processing<br>plants, rotary kilns and spray dryers. Swirling jets are used<br>as a means of controlling flames in combustion chambers. This<br>flame stabilization can be achieved by various methods. The<br>most common techniques used in a gas turbine combustor is to<br>stabilize the flame in modern gas turbine combustors is swirl<br>stabilization in which a swirl velocity is imparted to the inlet air<br>using vane swirlers. Such flows have practical applications in<br>many combustion systems, such as industrial furnaces and gas<br>turbine combustors. Air swirlers are widely used in both tubular<br>&amp; annular combustors. Swirler flow has been commonly used for<br>the stabilization of high-intensity combustion. Swirl can reduce<br>combustion lengths by producing higher rates of entrainment of<br>ambient fluid and fast mixing close to exit nozzle and on the<br>boundaries of recirculation zones in strongly swirling zones.</p> Bhavin K. Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Review on performance and working of cold room components https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5667 <p>A cold room is a refrigerated enclosure<br>intended for the storage of chilled and/or frozen foodstuff<br>or other perishable items. Cold room is the storage facility<br>where large quantities of products could be stored for<br>longer duration at lower temperature. Cold chain is now<br>recognized as a sunrise sector in India. The current<br>scenario reveals that there is a tremendous scope for the<br>development of cold chain facilities and Cold Rooms form<br>the heart of the cold chain. The cold room like every other<br>refrigerating systems of the same magnitude employs the<br>vapor compression refrigeration cycle. Vapor compression<br>refrigeration is widely used for air conditioning of<br>buildings and automobiles. It is also used in domestic and<br>commercial refrigerators, large-scale warehouses for<br>chilled or frozen storage of foods and meats, refrigerated<br>trucks and railroad cars, and a host of other commercial<br>and industrial services.</p> Darshan Gajdhar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 APPLICATION OF GENETIC ALGORITHM TO OPTIMIZE WORM GEAR DESIGN FOR MINIMUM CENTRE DISTANCE https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5668 <p>A gear transmission problem is one of the most complex optimization problems because of relationship between different<br>variables. A gear design require the designer to compromise many design variables; i.e. continuous, discrete &amp; integer variables in order to<br>determine best performance of gear set. Numbers of conventional methods are available for solving different types of optimization<br>problems. But due to their complexity and convergence problem these methods are not able to give optimal solution. Therefore<br>researchers are now going to use evolutionary techniques. Genetic Algorithm is one of such technique. A non-conventional algorithm<br>namely Genetic Algorithm is presented for optimization of worm gear mechanism with respect to specified set of constraints. The Genetic<br>Algorithm is an efficient search method which is inspired from Darw in’s concept of selection process to explore a given search space.</p> Hiren V. Patel Maniya K. D Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 THE EFFECT OF DENT UNDER FATIGUE LOADING IN PRESSURIZED PIPELINE: A REVIEW https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5669 <p>Pipeline integrity is the cornerstone of many industrial and engineering systems. This paper provides a review of all aspects<br>related to pipeline integrity. Assessment of the fatigue strength and burst strength of steel pipeline is essential consideration in the<br>components which are subjected to cyclic loads in service. This paper also presents a fatigue life assessment review of failure of steel<br>pipeline. Failure or deterioration of pipelines takes place by corrosion and fatigue, which later leads to rupture. Stress-life, strain-life, and<br>linear elastic fracture mechanics crack propagation method has shown to be well accepted as a benchmark model of fatigue assessment.<br>It shows that choosing an appropriate and accurate method is important; particularly for quantifying the extent to which the fatigue life is<br>reduced. Good predictions subsequently offer successful designs of pipelines and therefore, any unwanted damage can then be avoided.</p> Jagdish D. Bhakhar Prof. Mahesh N. Patel Prof. Chaitanaya K. Desai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 OPTIMIZATION OF SPUR GEAR DESIGN FOR MINIMUM OIL CHURNING LOSS BASED ON GENETIC ALGORITHM https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5670 <p>This paper presents work on the optimization method for spur gear design to minimize oil churning losses. Empirical model is<br>used to study the oil churning losses; such model is validated using data available in literature. The oil churning losses appear if the<br>rotating components are partially submerged in an oil bath.In this paper, Gear dimension such as module, pitch diameter, face width and oil<br>churning power loss are optimized and compared with the experimental data in literature. The main objective function is to minimize oil<br>churning power loss and constraints are minimum centre distance, minimum gear modulus and minimum number of teeth, surface<br>compressive stress and bending stress. A gear transmission problem is one of the most complex optimization problems because of<br>relationship between different variables. Therefore researchers are now going to use Non-classical Techniques. Genetic Algorithm is one of<br>such techniques.</p> Janak K. Sangani Dr. K. D. Maniya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Reverse engineering application for 3D CAD modeling of human knee joint https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5671 <p>An accurate three-dimensional (3D) model of bone knee is the most important part for implant or total replacement of knee<br>joint. Having increasing complexity of human bone in medical science, now a day reverse engineering and rapid prototyping approach is<br>very useful to create duplicate bone structure of existing human need in case of emergency replacement. Reverse engineering is one of<br>the process by which 3D CAD model can be easily generated .Different techniques available for generating CAD models. From literature<br>survey, It is conclude that CT scans provide accurate models other than different MRI or X-ray data. The present work describes the<br>methodology applied in the development of an anatomically detailed three dimensional knee model from CT scan data using Mimics<br>software. The final output of model is useful for fabricating artificial knee joint.</p> Pradip G Patel Jaydeep R Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Analysis of Parabolic trough Collector with Various Reflectors https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5672 <p>A solar powered air heating system using parabolic trough collector was experimentally<br>investigated. In this experimental setup, the reflected solar radiations were focused on absorber<br>tube which was placed at focal length of the parabolic trough. In this setup, air was used as<br>working fluid which collects the heat from absorber tube. To enhance the performance of parabolic<br>trough, collector with different type of reflectors were used. It was observed For Aluminum sheet<br>maximum temperature is 52.3ºC, which 24.22% more than steel sheet as reflector and 8.5% more<br>than Aluminum foil as reflector, also efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared to<br>steel sheet as reflector is 61.18% more. Efficiency by using Aluminum sheet as reflector compared<br>to Aluminum foil as reflector is 18.98% more</p> Prof. Rakesh M Dolia Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 An Application of Lean Six Sigma: A review https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5673 <p>Lean is about controlling the resources in<br>accordance with the customer’s needs and to reduce unnecessary<br>waste. Six sigma is defined: as a business process that allows<br>companies to drastically improve their bottom line by designing<br>and monitoring everyday business activities in ways that<br>minimize waste and resources while increasing customer<br>satisfaction by some of its proponents. The fusion of Lean and Six<br>Sigma improvement methods is required because: Lean cannot<br>bring a process under statistical control. Six Sigma alone cannot<br>dramatically improve process speed or reduce invested capital.<br>Both enable the reduction of the cost of complexity. Lean six<br>sigma (LSS) is a business strategy and methodology that<br>increases process performance resulting in enhanced customer<br>satisfaction and improved bottom line results. Six Sigma is<br>usually used to address complex problems for which the solution<br>is unknown. In this paper, the brief review of LSS application in<br>different area. Based on literature, the paper is alienated into<br>conventional approaches such as Lean and Six sigma and recent<br>LSS techniques applied to improve organization performance in<br>terms of quality, through put, producti vity improvement, with<br>enhancing overall production efficiency.</p> Shruti Raval Darshak Desai Shashank Thanki Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Application of Fuzzy Logic to Develop a Model for Cable Reeling Drum Parameters https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5674 <p>For any system, it is important to establish<br>relationship between control parameters and performance<br>parameters .Today many modeling techniques available to<br>establish relationship between performance parameters and<br>control parameters for material handling equipments.<br>Application of fuzzy logic Technique provide a nonfunctional, time saving, free form approach to capture effect<br>of control parameters like Cable diameter ,Cable length,<br>Travel speed etc. on performance parameters like Inner<br>diameter of drum ,Number of teeth of sprocket ,Motor RPM<br>etc. for cable reeling drum. Also result of Fuzzy model is<br>compared with Mathematical Model, which is developed by<br>using data fit software. There are three membership<br>function used for both inputs and outputs parameter in<br>mamdani type fuzzy inference engine of MATLAB.</p> Tanvi K. Chaudhari Prakash N. Vasava Vivek S. Ayar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review on Highly Compact Perforated Plate Heat Exchanger for Cryogenic Applications https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5675 <p>This paper describes a variety of fundamental research of cryogenic perforated plate heat exchanger which works at<br>temperature 123K (-150℃) or below it, also it is most critical component used for separation, purification, liquefaction, refrigeration<br>systems, working w ith different cryogenic gases like helium, hydrogen, neon, nitrogen, oxygen, air etc. Its primary function is “to converse<br>cold” i.e. allow the removal of energy from the compressed incoming gas by transferring energy to the low -pressure cold stream. So, it is<br>alw ays desirable to prevent “heat inleaks” to the system, as it is more difficult to remove energy from the low -temperature regions. Also<br>apart from having a high effectiveness, cryogenic heat exchangers also need to be very compact, i.e. they must accommodate a large<br>amount of surface area in a small volume. This helps in controlling heat exchange with the surroundings by reducing exposed surface area.<br>Perforated plate matrix heat exchanger (MHE) covers advantages of high effectiveness and high degree of compactness together in one<br>unit used for cryogenic applications. This paper deals with the brief review of research articles in chronological development of perforated<br>plate matrix heat exchanger.</p> Patel Vinodkumar Babulal Nisha V. Bora Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Survey: Different Techniques of Multi-view Image Registration https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5676 <p>This paper aims to present review of different techniques used for multi-view image registration. Multi-view image<br>registration is used in the field of video conferencing, 3D image reconstruction, generating large field of view and satellite imaging.<br>It can also be used for mosaicing based localization, shape recovery and motion detection and tracking. The key steps of multi-view<br>image registration are feature detection and feature matching. A lot of researchers have worked in the area of multi-view image<br>registration. Based on their nature different reviewed approach is classified as area-based methods and feature-basedmethods. The<br>advantages and disadvantages of different approaches are mentioned in this paper. The main goal of the paper is to provide a<br>detailed reference source for the researchers involved in multi-view image registration.</p> Ms.Mital Patel Dr.N. M. Patel Dr.Mehfuza Holia Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 REAL TIME VIDEO SURVEILLANCE SYSTEM BASED ON EMBEDDED WEB SERVER RASPBERRY PI B+ BOARD https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5677 <p>In this paper live video streaming is designed. As technology is growing day by day, it’s a revolutionary step towards video surveillance system by means of which one can monitor the entire system remotely on real time basis using embedded w eb server and Raspberry Pi B+<br>board. An USB camera is being used to capture the data from the remote location and then using mjpg streamer algorithm these captured data is<br>transmitted over internet using embedded web server and Raspberry Pi B+ board on the TCP/IP based netw ork. As live streaming operation was<br>needed, mjpg streamer algorithm is implemented by means of w hich live streaming data is converted into different frames and then these<br>frames are transmitted via the internet using Raspberry Pi B+ board. Mjpg streamer algorithm can be used to stream JPEG files over an IP-based<br>network from the webcam to a viewer like Firefox, Cambozola, Videolan client or even to a Windows Mobile device running the TCPMP-Player.<br>This entire system is based on LINUX-Raspbian OS, so entire system is designed in CGI (Common Gatew ay Interface) script. CGI programs are<br>the most common w ay for Web servers to interact dynamically with users. Broadcom BCM2835 SoC (System on Chip) chip as processor ARM 11<br>is a core of the whole system</p> Miss. Mahima F. Chauhan Prof. Gharge Anuradha P Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Real Time Movable Object Detection, Tracking and Velocity Estimation Using Image Processing https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5678 <p>Moving object detection and tracking is often the first step in applications such as video surveillance, Trajectory Prediction,etc.<br>The main aim of this research is moving object detection and tracking system w ith a static camera has been developed to estimate velocity,<br>distance parameters. We propose a general moving object detection and tracking based on vision system using image processing<br>algorithm. This paper focus on detect and track the moving object in the scene and estimate the velocity of moving object. In this paper an<br>algorithm is implemented on track the movable object in different video frames using the color feature extraction. This is done by using<br>Matlab software and we could calculate Distance travelled by the object in different frames and estimate the velocity using simple image<br>processing algorithm.</p> Miksha Upadhyay prof.Jignesh.R.Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A REVIEW ON AUDIO FEATURES BASED EXTRACTION OF SONGS FROM MOVIES https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5679 <p>A movie is a collection of different portions like comedy scenes, action, dialogs and songs. Extraction of a selected portion such as songs<br>is a complex task. Basic three approaches namely visual based, text based and audio based are used by authors over the time for video<br>content classification. This paper indicates that audio based approach is most suitable for extraction of songs. Audio based approach<br>utilizes various audio features which can differentiate songs and non-songs as mentioned here. Different combinations of these features<br>have been used by researchers from which a generic model is derived that can become the base for songs extraction application</p> Mittal C. Darji Dr. Narendra M. Patel Zankhana H. Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Survey of Association Rule Hiding Approaches For Privacy Preservation Data Mining https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5680 <p>Data mining algorithm is used to extract the useful knowledge or information from database. Privacy preservation data mining is<br>novel research area where data mining algorithms are analyzed for their side-effects they done on data privacy. Privacy preservation data<br>mining (PPDM) deals with the problem of hiding the sensitive information w hile analyzing data. Many techniques are available for PPDM<br>like data distortion, data hiding, rule hiding, data modification etc. Association rule hiding is one of the technique of PPDM. It hides sensitive<br>rules which are generated by association rule generation algorithm before releasing database. This paper discusses different approaches<br>of association rule hiding technique.</p> Divya C. kalariya Vinita Shah Jay Vala Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A SURVEY OF OUTLIER DETECTION IN DATA MINING https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5681 <p>Outlier is a data point that deviates too much<br>from the rest of dataset. Most of real-world dataset have<br>outlier. Outlier detection plays an important role in data<br>mining field. Outlier Detection is useful in many fields<br>like Network intrusion detection, Credit card fraud<br>detection, stoke market analysis, detecting outlying in<br>wireless sensor network data, fault diagnosis in<br>machines, etc. This paper is a survey on different Outlier<br>detection approaches, which are statistical-based<br>approach, deviation-based approach, distance-based<br>approach, density-based approach. In order to deal with<br>outlier, clustering method is used. For that K-mean is<br>widely used to cluster the dataset then we can apply any<br>technique for finding outliers.</p> SHIVANI P. PATEL VINITA SHAH JAY VALA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Conceptual Case Based Approach to Retrieve Java Class Library https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5682 <p>The CBR system is improved by using clustering algorithm with k – NN algorithm. Cases in the class libraries<br>are clustered into smaller sub sets. The structure is represented by hierarchical manner. The similarity<br>approach is examined by comparing the structures of retrieval of class libraries. The class library is<br>maintained with the class, interface, and packages of JAVA programming language.<br>WE have proposed a model where each case in the repository is an active case and where a hierarchical<br>structure provides an organization analogy useful to implement the retrieval mechanisms and rules.<br>Keywords: class library, clustering, retrieval</p> M. K. Patil Dr. P. P. Jamsandekar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Local Tetra Pattern for Image Retrieval System Using Hadoop https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5683 <p>In today's world, huge quantity of data, in the form<br>of images, is produced through digital cameras, mobile phones<br>and photo editing software. It is important to develop new<br>CBIR techniques which gives effective and scalable result for<br>real time processing of large image collections. Local tetra<br>pattern (LTrP) is used for managing the large database. The<br>local ternary pattern and local binary pattern encode the<br>relationship. LBP and LTP encodes the relationship between<br>referenced pixel and its surrounding neighbors by calculating<br>gray-level difference. Local Tetra Pattern (LTrP) which<br>carries the interrelationship in between the center pixels and<br>its surrounded neighbors of center pixel. The main objective<br>of study is distribution of image data over a large number of<br>nodes over Hadoop using Map Reduce Technique. Hadoop<br>defines a framework which allows processing on distributed<br>large sets across clusters of computer.</p> Mrs. Urvashi Trivedi Mrs. Kishori Shekoker Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Botnet and Detection Techniques: A Review https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5684 <p>Among the diverse forms of malw are, Botnet is the most w idespread and serious threat which occurs commonly in today's cyberattacks. A botnet is a group of compromised computers which are remotely controlled by attacker to launch various network attacks, such as<br>DDoS attack, spam, click fraud, identity theft and information phishing. Botnet has become a popular and productive tool behind many cyberattacks. The defining characteristic of botnets is the use of command and control channels through which they can be updated and directed.<br>Recently malicious botnets evolve into HTTP botnets out of typical IRC botnets. Data mining algorithms allow us to automate detecting<br>characteristics from large amount of data, which the conventional heuristics and signature based methods could not apply.</p> Binal Panchal Hardik Upadhyay Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review on Privacy Preserving Data Mining Approaches https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5685 <p>The field of privacy has seen rapid advances in<br>recent years because of the increase in the ability to store<br>data. In particular, recent advances in the data mining field<br>have lead to increased concerns about privacy. While the<br>topic of privacy has been traditionally studied in the context<br>of cryptography and information hiding, recent emphasis on<br>data mining has lead to renewed interest in the field.<br>A fruitful direction for future data mining research will be the<br>development of techniques that incorporate privacy concerns.<br>Specially, we address the following question. Since the primary<br>task in data mining is the development of models about<br>aggregated data, can we develop accurate models without access<br>to precise information in individual data records? We consider<br>the concrete case of building a decision-tree classier from<br>training data in which the values of individual records have been<br>perturbed. The resulting data records look very different from the<br>original records and the distribution of data values is also very<br>different from the original distribution. While it is not possible to<br>accurately estimate original values in individual data records, we<br>propose a novel reconstruction procedure to accurately estimate<br>the distribution of original data values. By using these<br>reconstructed distributions, we are able to build classifiers whose<br>accuracy is comparable to the accuracy of classifiers built with<br>the original data.</p> Anu Thomas Jimesh Rana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 An Approach for Improving the Efficiency of Software Team by Continuous Evaluation of Software Development https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5686 <p>Accurate software cost and schedule estimations are essential specially for large software<br>projects. However, once the required efforts have been estimated, little is done to recalibrate and<br>reducethe uncertainty of the initial estimates. To address this problem,we have developed and<br>used a framework to continuously monitor the software project progress and readjust the<br>estimated effort utilizing the Constructive Cost Model II (COCOMO II) and the Unified Code<br>Count Tool. As a software project progresses, we gain more information about the project itself,<br>which can then be used to assess and re estimate the effort required to complete the project. With<br>more accurate estimations and less uncertainties, the quality and goal of project outcome can be<br>assured within the available resources. The paper thus also provides and analyzes empirical data<br>on how projects evolve within the familiar software “cone of uncertainty.”</p> Arpit Mehta Yoothika Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 COPEMO: A Continuous Project Evaluation Process MOdel https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5687 <p>-Team synchronization and stabilization are<br>essential especially for large software projects. However,<br>often little is done to assess and reduce the uncertainties<br>and knowledge gaps that exist within the project. As the<br>project progresses through its life cycle, the team can gain<br>more information about the project and team’s capabilities.<br>These necessary data can be obtained through performing<br>assessments on the team and project. As these<br>assessments procedures are often complex, discouraging,<br>and difficult to analyze, an effective framew ork and tool<br>support can greatly enhance the process. Hence, with<br>improved assessment method software project teams can<br>quickly gather the necessary data, determine the actions to<br>improve performance, and result in an improved project<br>outcome in the end. The A COntinious Project Evaluation<br>Process MOdel (COPEPMO) is a framework developed to<br>effectively improve team synchronization and stabilization<br>as well as project effort estimation and scoping by enabling<br>software development teams to quickly track project<br>progress, continuously assess team performance, and<br>make adjustments to the project estimates as necessary.</p> Arpit Mehta Hitesh Vaghela Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 DETECTION Background Subtraction Technique As Review https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5688 <p>This paper presents an approach to background subtraction based on rectangular regions (blocks). The general principle is to<br>successively divide the image into blocks and detect foreground pixels based on the colour histogram and the variance between pixels<br>of the blocks. Then, the classic Gaussian Mixture background subtraction method is applied to refine the detected foreground. Results<br>show that this approach reduces false positives by filtering noise coming from small motion as it is based on groups of pixels instead of<br>on individual pixels.</p> Ms.Bhagyashri A. Makwana Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Study of Energy-Aware Routing Techniques in Mobile Adhoc Networks https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5689 <p>A Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANETs) is composed of<br>a group of mobile and wireless nodes which does not use a<br>centralized structure or base station system. There are several<br>issues needed to be addressed for smooth and effective functioning<br>of MANET. One such issue for almost all kinds of mobile nodes<br>supported by battery powers is Energy Saving. Energy is a limited<br>resource; hence, how to extend the lifetime of batteries is an<br>important issue, especially for MANET, which is totally supported<br>by batteries. In this paper, various ways for getting energy efficient<br>AODV (Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector) routing protocol,<br>have been studied which could be modified to improve the<br>networks lifetime in MANET. A solution can be proposed based on<br>considering the energy of each node because each node's energy<br>state has a huge influence on the entire network lifetime.</p> Yoothika S. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Survey: Natural Language Interface to Databases https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5690 <p>Information plays an important role in our everyday life and databases are widely used for storing and retrieving<br>information. Database technology is having major impact in the world of computing. To access the information from database<br>one need to have knowledge of database query language such as SQL. Because the naïve user may not be aware of the syntax of<br>SQL and structure of database, s/he may not be able to write the SQL queries. Non -technical users may query relational<br>databases in their natural language (i.e. English) instead of using SQL. This idea of using a Natural Language instead of SQL has<br>lead to an approach of building Natural Language Interface to Relational Database. This paper is an introduction to the natural<br>language interface to databases (NLIDB).</p> Jaina Patel Jay Dave Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review on Data mining Techniques https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5692 <p>Presently, a very large amount of data stored in<br>databases is increasing at a tremendous speed. This requires<br>a need for new techniques and tools to aid humans in<br>automatically and intelligently analyzing large data sets to<br>acquire useful information. This growing need gives a view<br>for a new research field called Knowledge Discovery in<br>Databases (KDD) or Data Mining, which attract a attention<br>from researchers in many different fields including database<br>design, statistics, pattern recognition, machine learning, and<br>data visualization. Data mining is the process of discovering<br>insightful, interesting, and novel patterns, as well as<br>descriptive, understandable and predictive models from<br>large-scale data. In this paper we overviewed different tasks<br>includes in Data mining. Data mining involves the tasks like<br>anomaly detection, classification, regression, association<br>rule learning, summarization and clustering</p> Jimesh Rana Anu Thomas Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Location-Based Routing Protocols for Wireless Sensor Network: A Survey https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5693 <p>Mobile sink node properly used in<br>routing protocols can improve network<br>performance. Thus we investigate locationbased routing protocols. The latter strategy<br>can be further classified into backbonebased and rendezvous-based routing<br>protocols. We first describe the main<br>principles of the two location-based routing<br>protocols with sink mobility support<br>respectively. Then we analyze their<br>advantages and disadvantages.</p> Mayur Ajmeri Mamta Parmar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review Paper on Cloud Computing https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5695 <p>Cloud computing has recently emerged as a new<br>paradigm for hosting and delivering services over the Internet. Cloud computing is attractive to business owners as it<br>eliminates the requirement for users to plan ahead for<br>provisioning, and allows enterprises to start from the small<br>and increase resources only when there is a rise in service<br>demand. However, despite the fact that cloud computing<br>offers huge opportunities to the IT industry, the development<br>of cloud computing technology is currently at its infancy,<br>with many issues still to be addressed. In this paper, we<br>present a survey of cloud computing, highlighting its key<br>concepts, architectural principles, and state of the art<br>implementation as well as research challenges. The aim of<br>this paper is to provide a better understanding of the design<br>challenges of cloud computing and identify important<br>research directions in this increasingly important area.</p> Nitesh Barot Kejal Shah Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Comparison of Dynamic Scheduling Algorithm for Real Time Operating System https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5696 <p>Real timesystem isdivided in to two algorithms static<br>and dynamic. Both algorithmwant to complete his job in<br>givendeadline or before deadline but no onealgorithmare<br>successfullycompletehis jobin overloadedandunderloadedsituation.<br>Dynamicalgorithmabletogive optimalresultinunder- loaded<br>situationbut not abletogivesame resultinov er-loaded<br>situation.Staticalgorithmnotabletogiveoptimalresultinunderloadedsituation butabletoperformwell inover-loaded situation.<br>Sowethinknewalgorithmtogiveresultoptimuminunder-loaded<br>situation andgivehigh resultin ov er-loadedsituation. We are serving<br>dynamic scheduling algorithms like EDF (Earlierdead line first),<br>MLF (Minimum Laxity First) and RM algorithms perform well in<br>overloaded situation. Here servingthat EDF, M LFandRMalgorithms<br>togivearesultinunder-loadedsituation and inoverloaded situation.</p> HemangThakar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Review of Various Web Page Ranking Algorithms in Web Structure Mining https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5697 <p>The World Wide Web contains large amount of<br>data. These data is stored in the form of web pages .All<br>these pages can be accessed using search engines. These<br>search engines need to be very efficient as there are large<br>number of Web pages as well as queries are submitted to<br>the search engines. Page ranking algorithms are used by the<br>search engines to present the search results by considering<br>the relevance, importance and content score. Several web<br>mining techniques are used to order them according to the<br>user interest. In this paper such page ranking techniques are<br>discussed.</p> Asst. prof. Dhwani Dave Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Study of malicious node effect on Mobile Ad-hoc Network https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5698 <p>The MANET stands for Mobile ad-hoc<br>networks, as per user requirements it will connect or<br>disconnect from network. The MANET is creating<br>dynamic topology without any kind of centralized<br>administration. The suitable routing protocol is<br>crucial for improved communication in MANET. In<br>MANET basically two types of routing protocols<br>works for data transfer, the first one is reactive<br>routing protocol and another one is proactive routing<br>protocol. The MANET is work on open environment<br>due to this reduce the routing protocol performance<br>because the performance is effected by the malicious<br>node. Malicious node either directly or indirectly<br>affect to the network or routing performance. In<br>various kind of attack happen on MANET<br>environment like, Black hole attack, Denial of Service<br>attack, eavesdropping, Sybil attack etc.</p> Bhupendra B. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review On Frequent Pattern Mining Algorithms https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5699 <p>Frequent itemsets play an essential role in many data<br>mining tasks thattry to find interesting patterns from databases,<br>such as association rules,correlations, sequences, episodes,<br>classifiers, clusters and many more of whichthe mining of<br>association rules is one of the most popular problems. The<br>original motivation for searching association rules came from the<br>need toanalyze so called supermarket transaction data, that is, to<br>examine customer behavior in terms of the purchased products.<br>Association rules describehow often items are purchased<br>together. For example, an association rule“beer ⇒ chips (80%)”<br>states that four out of five customers that boughtbeer also bought<br>chips. Such rules can be useful for decisions concerning product<br>pricing, promotions, store layout and many others.</p> Sunita Murjani Dhwani Dave Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Survey:Routing Protocols in MANETs, Advantages, Problems and Security https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5700 <p>Mobile ad hoc networks<br>(MANETs) are autonomously self-organized<br>networks without infrastructure support. In<br>a mobile ad hoc network, nodes move<br>arbitrarily; therefore the network may<br>experience rapid and unpredictable<br>topology changes. Because nodes in a<br>MANET normally have limited transmission<br>ranges, some nodes cannot communicate<br>directly with each other. Hence, routing<br>paths in mobile ad hoc networks potentially<br>contain multiple hops, and every node in<br>mobile ad hoc networks has the<br>responsibility to act as a router. This paper<br>aims at the advantages and problems of<br>MANET with the issue of improving the<br>future security.</p> Mamta Parmar Mayur Ajmeri Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review on Various Job Scheduling Algorithm in Cloud Computing https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5701 <p>For today’s most demanding service ofcloud computing,<br>there are many tasks requires to be executed by the available<br>resources to achieve best performance, shortest response time<br>and utilization of resources. To achieve these challenges there is a<br>need to design a new task scheduling algorithm that outperform<br>appropriate allocation map of task. In this paper, a systematic<br>review of various tasks scheduling algorithm is presented. These<br>algorithms have different perspective, working principles etc.<br>This study concludes that all the existing techniques mainly focus<br>on reducing service response time, minimize completion time,<br>maximize utilization of resources and improving performance<br>etc. There are many parameters can be mentioned as factor of<br>scheduling problem to be considered such as load balancing,<br>system throughput, service reliability, service cost, service<br>utilization and so forth.</p> Asst. Prof. Gaurang A. Patel Asst. Prof. Hitesh Vaghela Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Implementation of Three Phase 12-Step VSI with Harmonics Reduction https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5702 <p>In this paper a novel circuit topology for<br>reducing the harmonics in the output voltage of a three-phase<br>voltage-source inverter is proposed. It is found that in<br>comparison with conventional conduction modes like 120°<br>and 180°, there are introduced less harmonics with 150°<br>conduction mode. The quality of output voltage can be<br>improved by only changing the conduction mode which is<br>very simple to implement. In this paper, the scheme is<br>implemented and tested for 1.5kW, 50 Hz VSI. The control<br>signals are generated using AT89C51 microcontroller. The<br>output waveforms under various load conditions were<br>examined, analyzed and verified.</p> Mayur H. Maheswari Madhusudan V. Gohil Mayuri tahilramani Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Performance Comparison of MIMO-OFDM System https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5703 <p>In this paper, we exhibit 2×2 MIMO framework<br>utilizing alamouti space time Block code for level blurring<br>channel. In non level blurring channel i.e. recurrence particular<br>multipath channel, convolution of the channel drive reaction<br>with STBC yield crushes the orthogonality of the STBC that can<br>be comprehended by utilizing Orthogonal Frequency division<br>Multiplexing (OFDM). At long last, we contrast Performance of<br>OFDM and CP (cyclic prefix) over awgn channel for diverse<br>balance methods utilizing BER examination.</p> Ms. Neha Acharya Mr. Kevin Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 The Effect of Fault Resistance on Distance Relaying Application https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5704 <p>The design and behavior of distance relay used for<br>the protection of long transmission line is described in this paper.<br>The relay was simulated using the model language in MATLAB.<br>The operating behavior of the relay was assessed using two<br>different simulated networks with both solid and resistive faults.<br>The data generated by MATLAB SIMULINK describes the<br>voltage and current signals at the relay location both immediately<br>before and during the fault. The data is applied to the relay<br>simulator, which than evaluates whether the impedance<br>trajectory of the fault enters one or more of the operating zones.<br>The results are presented in graphical form using an R-X<br>diagram.</p> PROF. AMIT N. PATEL PROF. HETAL SOLANKI PROF. AMARPAL R. KANOJIYA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Analysis Of Cascade Tripping & Blackout And Modern Defense System https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5705 <p>This paper proposes generalize scenario<br>of cascading disturbance, types of events, traditional<br>stability techniques for power system and modern real<br>time analysis technique with validating relay<br>operation. The strategies consist of neural network<br>based fault detection and classification(NNFDC), event<br>tree analysis(ETA) and the most efficient wide area<br>monitoring and analysis protection -control<br>(WARMAP). By proper actions using appropriate<br>technique how can we deal with cascading failure is<br>illustrated in this paper.</p> Mer Devang K Shah Krushan B Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Measurement of Strength of Vacuum Di-electric medium, [Cryogenic Insulant] in Vacuum Interrupter https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5706 <p>OuThe paper is targetd to develop the system is to provide the path, for suspended particals in vacuum interruptor<br>, which will constitute a leakage current through the vacuum insulent medium. As these suspended particals become the charge<br>carriers; this current may or may not be a continuous or constant current. Therefore this current is not treated as the conventional current, but it is measured in terms of nano or micro coulombs, being a partial discharge through the medium. This partial<br>discharge is inversely proportional to the ‘strength’ of the vacuum. The paper has defined the term ‘strength’ of the vacuum medium.’ as ‚It is the Quantum of charge carriers present in vacuum medium.‛</p> Prof. Avinash P. Paranjape P.E.S. College of Engineering Nagsenvan, Aurangabad, (M.S). India. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 7 level multilevel inverter to be used in food preservation system https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5707 <p>Multilevel inverters are widely used presently with<br>non conventional energy sources like solar, fuel cell. The source<br>has lower individual voltage level. Conventional inverter<br>technique uses bulky transformer and high rating devices while<br>in multilevel inverter there is no transformer and level is boosted<br>by cascading switching devices in particular order. Naturally the<br>waveform is not pure sine and harmonics are present. The paper<br>describes. The proposed methodology was based on the non<br>conventional sources produce low level voltage levels. It make<br>multilevel inverter technique is useful. The application part<br>consists of real requirement in rural area where there is load<br>shading problem to preserve vegetable where supply source is<br>only solar energy. Our system is suitable in area where<br>uninterrupted supply is required like food preservation &amp; kidney<br>dialysis system.<br>Here 7level MLI is considered for analysis.</p> Mrs.Priyanka A.Khunkar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Condition monitoring of insulation system of an isolation transformer with partial discharge test https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5708 <p>Electrical machines have become a vital asset in any industry or power station or house hold.Periodic or continuous c ondition<br>monitoring has also become a crucial requirement in anticipating any fault for preventive maintenance which may earn the goal of efficient<br>functioning of the same.In this paper a case study based on condition monitoring of insulation system of an isolation transformer using<br>partial discharge test which is one of the important techniques employed in assessing the electrical discharge activity and ultimately the<br>health of the insulation system of the same</p> Jasmin James Archana Nanoty Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Smart Grid and its Development Prospects In the Asia-Pacific Region https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5709 <p>the purpose of this paper is to explain the<br>importance of Smart Grid Deployment in Asia-Pacific region.<br>The paper throws the light on various problems and challenges<br>related to electricity grids that are faced in Asia-Pacific region<br>and the solution to manage those problems by adopting the vision<br>of a ―Smart Grid.‖ The smart grid holds promise of transforming<br>our current electricity delivery system into a more efficient and<br>secure system that is able to better integrate variable supply<br>resources while giving the end-user – the customer – greater<br>autonomy in his/her energy consumption. Without a doubt, many<br>of the technologies and management tools the smart grid may<br>depend on have lead regulators, policy-makers, customers,<br>companies, and stakeholders to consider many questions – what<br>it is, what its benefits are, what value it brings to society as a<br>whole as well as individual consumers, what its potential<br>challenges are, and what kind of mistakes can be avoided when<br>moving forward. The purpose of this literature review is to<br>explore these questions and more in a fair and balanced,<br>comprehensive overview of the smart Grid. The resources<br>contained in this review are primarily derived from the internet<br>and as such, many are available simply via the web links. For<br>organizational purposes, the sources have been divided into five<br>sections respectively: (1) The Basics; (2) Supply Resources; (3)<br>Transmission &amp; Distribution Technologies; (4) End-Use<br>Technologies &amp; Rates; (5) Cyber security.</p> Jaypalsinh y champavat Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 MAGNETO-HYDRO-DYNAMICS (MHD) GENERATION https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5710 <p>Energy Technology is an applied science<br>dealing with various alternative energy<br>routes comprising the exploration and<br>extraction of primary raw energy,<br>conversions to intermediate/secondary forms<br>of energy and by-products, transportation<br>alternatives, storage, distribution and supply<br>of secondary forms of energy.<br>In India, and many other developing<br>Nations, the gap between the demand and<br>supply of secondary energy is increasing<br>resulting in perpetual energy crises. Besides<br>many methods of power generation like<br>thermal, nuclear, diesel etc. one of the high<br>efficient and unique methods with pollution<br>free environment is Magneto Hydro<br>Dynamic (MHD) type power generation. It<br>is a way of generating electricity by<br>conversion of heat into electrical energy,<br>without the need of any moving mechanical<br>parts- no turbines and no rotary generators.<br>Therefore due to the elimination of link<br>process of producing mechanical energy and<br>then converting it to electrical energy, the<br>fuel economy can be achieved. Basically the<br>efficiency of non-conventional power plant<br>like solar, wind, tidal are around of 35-40%,<br>whereas of MHD power plant is about 50-<br>60% which can be raised up to 75-80% by<br>using super conducting magnets. Hence<br>using MHD power generation technique the<br>crises of energy can be reduced up to certain<br>limits.</p> Amit R. Pandit Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 LIFE EXTENSION TECHNIQUE OF A POWER TRANSFORMER https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5711 <p>-</p> Mrs. Eeshani. Paranjape Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 POWER QUALITY PROBLEMS, CAUSES AND SOLUTIONS https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5712 <p>-</p> Viresha Pandure Prof. S. V. Murkute Nikhil Puse Prof. B.N. Chaudhari Dhammadeep Narwade Prof. M. S. Potdar Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A review of MMPT methods for solar pv systems https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5713 <p>The purpose of this paper is to study and compare different maximum power point tracking (MPPT) methods in a<br>photovoltaic system. Many maximum power point tracking techniques for photovoltaic systems have been developed to ma ximize the produced energy. There are different techniques for MPPT such as Perturb and Observe, Incremental conductance,<br>Fractional Short Circuit Current, hill climbing method, Fractional Open Circuit Voltage, Fuzzy Control, Neural Network Control<br>etc. These techniques are vary in many aspects as: simplicity, convergence speed, digital or analogical implementation, sensors<br>required, cost, range of effectiveness, and in other aspects. This paper presents a comparative study of different widely-adopted<br>MPPT algorithms. The maximum power point tracking (MPPT) of the PV output for all sunshine conditions is a key to keep the<br>output power per unit cost low for successful PV applications.</p> Pravin D. Patel Dr. Jatin J. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 PMU BASED DYNAMIC STATE ESTIMATION TECHNIQUE https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5714 <p>This paper presents the Boolean algebra into<br>state estimation to covenant with topological position.<br>It consents to power system operators to express<br>consistent state estimation in a intellect that network<br>topology is recognized while estimation is evaluated.<br>State Estimation customs one of the primary EMS<br>functions at the regulator epicenter. Precision of<br>the state estimation hang on the accuracy of the<br>measurements used. Hence, it is highly indispensable<br>to use accurate measuring devices. Phasor<br>Measurement Units (PMU), with their inherent high<br>accuracy and the unique ability to measure the voltage<br>angles, offers a great improvement in the overall<br>accuracy of the state estimation. Few techniques have<br>been proposed in the literature for using PMUs in<br>static state estimation. It is also important to use<br>PMU data in to Dynamic State Estimation (DSE),<br>which envisage the state of the system one step ahead.</p> MAYURDHVAJS INH P. GOHIL VANDIT PANDYA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 “An Authentic control of Voltage Profile Using PMU through GPS System https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5715 <p>Nowadays the increase of power electronic devices at<br>the distributed side, which has ability to provide power factor<br>correction and reactive power control at the same end. The<br>device connect to distributed side are resonant converter, saticVar compensator, power buffer, solar panels, and pluggable<br>hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs ),Such equipment are not<br>presently utilized by the power system to fulfill the reactive<br>power for unity voltage profile. The integration of these enduser RCD are done to support the grid via a secure<br>communications infrastructure.The real time data of bus<br>system measured by PMU and transfer to control center<br>through GPS system. PMU and SCADA measurement data<br>can be displayed in the same line monitoring and displaying<br>on power substations. Ttraditionally the un-authentic<br>communication network has used via fiber-based networks,<br>cellular network, Wi-Fi and Wi-Max networks as well as more<br>ad-hoc radio and wireless mesh networks.in this paper the new<br>communication network with authentic signature is suggested<br>and also the optimal placement of PMUs Due high cost</p> Prof. Amarpal Kanojiya Prof. Amit Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Simulation of Phase Locked Loop Circuit in Non-Linear Load https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5716 <p>Nonlinear load produces the harmonics in the supply system and deteriorate voltage and current wave shape. Thisdistortion can be<br>minimized by use of PLL.This paper presents the effective solution to reduce harmonics by using phase locked loop (PLL). This paper<br>contains simulation of PLL in three phase system. Simulation results are also shown in the paper.</p> Rana Urvesh Rameshbhai Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Literature review on Relay coordination using software techniques https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5717 <p>In this paper, I presented different techniques for<br>relay coordination using software techniques. Now days, the<br>demand of electricity is increasing. So, the network of<br>electricity from generation to distribution is very large. The<br>network of state electricity boards typically have 10 to 15 or<br>more buses, 40 to 50 transmission lines and 80 to 100<br>overcurrent relays. The exercise of load flow analysis, fault<br>level calculations and listing the primary backup pairs will be<br>very tedious. The exercise is very difficult because one has to<br>consider line contingencies and relay setting are to be decide<br>based on the worst case. Also several iteration would be required<br>to calculate TMS of relays so that minimum discrimination<br>margin as required is found between relay and its backup<br>relays. This is only by using some computer programming. In<br>this paper, shows the some algorithm techniques and also<br>discuss the advantages of latest software ETAP.</p> Vipul Rajput Ankit Rabari Amit Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Literature review on Improvement of Voltage Stability Through Optimal Placement of TCSC https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5718 <p>The increase in power demand has forced the power system to<br>operate closer to its stability limit. Voltage instability and line<br>overloading have become challenging problems due to the<br>strengthening of power system by various means. The nature of<br>voltage stability can be analyzed by the production,<br>transmission and consumption of reactive power. One of the<br>major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power<br>unbalancing which occurs in stressed condition of power<br>system. Flexible AC transmission system (FACTS) devices play<br>an important role in improving the performance of a power<br>system, but these devices are very costly and hence need to be<br>placed optimally in power system. FACTS device like thyristor<br>controlled series compensator (TCSC) can be employed to<br>reduce the flows in heavily loaded lines, resulting in a low<br>system loss and improved stability of network. A method based<br>on line stability index has been proposed to decide the optimal<br>location of TCSC. The effectiveness of the proposed method is<br>demonstrated on IEEE - 14 bus power system.</p> CHIRAG D. CHAUHAN AMIT N. PATEL HETAL SOLANKI Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Recent Era and Development of Multi-Band Microstrip Patch Antenna https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5719 <p>Microstrip patch antenna is being studied by the researchers since last three to four decades as one of the standa rd planar antenna. Still, it has much room for further improvements. This paper represents methods to achieve the multi-band microstrip patch antenna<br>using single or multi-element via stack or array &amp; comparison of them. Methods will describes to obtain desired requirements such as wideband, high gain and miniaturization. This are the areas in which further research work can be done to enhance the experience of the wireless communication. For better understanding some recently developed antenna designs are described &amp; compared here.</p> Tejas Chavda Sweety Joshi Dr. Jagdish Rathod Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 VARIABL REACTANCE TRANSFORMER AN EMERGING TECHNOLOGY https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5720 <p>The paper illustrates about the newly<br>developed technology for Variable Reactance Transformer<br>or VRT is not a device, which transforms power, but it is a<br>device which transforms volt-amperes from one circuit to<br>another circuit. has an infinitely variable coupling between<br>primary and secondary. It is not a voltage-controlling<br>device, but makes available to the secondary more or less<br>amperes; dependent upon the DC signal applied The<br>system can best be compared with a Saturable Core<br>Reactor in series with the primary of the transformer</p> Prof. S. M. Kulkarni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Analyzing the Non-Linear Effects in DWDM Optical Network Using MDRZ Modulation Format https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5721 <p>Major challenge faced by today's<br>telecommunication is the increasing demand of bandwidth<br>and data rates. In order to expand the capacity of the optical<br>system, it has accelerated the development of high capacity<br>DWDM links. There are some barriers in DWDM related to<br>data rate and capacity. These barriers are linear and<br>nonlinear effects. Out of these barriers, linear effects such as<br>attenuation and dispersion can be easily compensated using<br>soliton and dispersion compensating fiber but there is an<br>accumulation of nonlinear effects. The nonlinear effects occur<br>in optical system are Self-Phase Modulation (SPM),<br>Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS), Stimulated<br>Raman Scattering (SRS), Cross Phase Modulation<br>(XPM), And Four-Wave Mixing (FWM). Out of which<br>SBS and SPM is examined in single channel link<br>whereas SRS, XPM and FWM is introduced in multichannel link<br>In this paper optical link of different number of data channels<br>is studied using MDRZ modulation scheme at various input<br>power levels. Paper shows the simulated performance analysis<br>of the impact of Cross Phase Modulation and Four Wave<br>Mixing on DWDM optical network. The analysis is done on<br>the basis of Q-factor, Optical Spectrum and Eye Diagram.<br>Performance of link deteriorates as the input power and the<br>number of data channels increases.</p> Ami R. Lavingia Prof. Viral Mehta Prof. Kruti Lavingia Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Comparison of robust M estimator, S estimator & MM estimator with Wiener based denoising filter for gray level image denoising with Gaussian noise https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5722 <p>In any image processing system denoising of images is<br>an important step. The images can be corrupted by different noises<br>with different levels. There are three types of noises available:<br>impulse, Gaussian and Speckle noises with mixture of them. Many<br>algorithms are proposed to remove salt &amp; pepper (impulse) noise as<br>well as Gaussian noise. The Robust statistics based filter is also<br>proposed to remove either impulse or Gaussian noise using<br>Lorentian rho function based robust M estimator. In this paper we<br>evaluate the performance of MM-estimator, S-estimator, Mestimator, median filter and Wiener filter based image Denoising<br>filters for Gaussian noise. The Result shows that for Gaussian<br>noise wiener based filter gives good noise reduction compare to<br>other.</p> Mr. Pratyaksh A Maru Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 MicroGrid during Grid-connected mode and Islanded mode - A Review https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5723 <p>There has been a keen interest on<br>Distributed Generation (DG) due to their<br>restricted goals of meeting local loads and<br>improving reliability of the overall system.<br>Micro grids (MGs) are connected to the main<br>grid through a Point of Common Coupling<br>which separates the former from the latter. At<br>the time of an intentional islanding or fault at<br>the grid level, a MicroGrid is able to disconnect<br>itself from the rest of the grid and operate by<br>itself. A MicroGrid may contain both directly<br>connected and inverter interfaced sources with<br>different control configurations. When<br>disconnected or islanded from the main grid<br>there are various approaches to share the load,<br>one of them being master-slave control where a<br>storage device may become the reference DG to<br>set the nominal voltage and frequency. When<br>the main grid is brought back to normal<br>operation, the MicroGrid is able to<br>resynchronize itself to the main grid only when<br>it meets certain conditions so as to avoid<br>transients. All the microsources, power<br>electronics and their control with power<br>management were developed in<br>Matlab/Simulink.</p> Kalpesh C. Soni Firdaus F. Belim Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 SATELLITE’S POSITION CONTROL IN GEOSTATIONARY ORBIT USING SLIDING MODE ALGORITHM https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5724 <p>In this paper, in control theory, sliding mode<br>control, or SMC, is a form of variable structure control (VSC). It<br>is a nonlinear control method that alters the dynamics of a<br>nonlinear system by application of a high-frequency switching<br>control. The state-feedback control law is not a continuous<br>function of time. It switches from one continuous structure to<br>another based on the current position in the state space. Hence,<br>sliding mode control is a variable structure control method. The<br>multiple control structures are designed so that trajectories<br>always move toward a switching condition, and so the ultimate<br>trajectory will not exist entirely within one control structure.<br>Instead, the ultimate trajectory will slide along the boundaries of<br>the control structures. The motion of the system as it slides along<br>these boundaries is called a sliding mode and the geometrical<br>locus consisting of the boundaries is called the sliding (hyper)<br>surface. Using this law we can control the Satellite’s position in<br>Geostationary Orbit.</p> Mr. Anirudha Singh Mr. Maulik Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Action Scene Extraction from Movie using Finite State Machine https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5725 <p>To attract the viewers into paying to see full<br>movie, the creation of movie trailers is an essential part of<br>movie industry. Action scene is the main factor of a movie<br>trailer. In this paper, we propose an automatic action scene<br>extraction algorithm using finite state machine based on<br>analyzing audio-visual features. The input video is first<br>decomposed into shot. Then audio features compute and<br>applied to support vector machine in order to determine<br>whether it is speech, silence or music. Extracted<br>Audiovisual features are to feed into finite state machine in<br>order to determine action scene classification from others<br>scene.</p> Mr. Maulik P. Patel Mr. Anirudha Singh Mr. Mehul Amin Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Image Watermarking withHybrid approach using Discrete Wavelet Transform(DWT)–Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5726 <p>Thispaper presents a robust watermarking technique for the copyright protection based<br>onwavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine<br>transform (DCT). In this a secrete watermark image is<br>embedded into a low frequency band of a cover image.<br>The comparison is based on statistical parameters such<br>as peak-signal-to-noise-ratio (PSNR), mean square<br>error (MSE) and normalized cross-correlation (NCC).</p> Mr. Rahul Patel Ms.Dhruvisha Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Control for Grid Connected and Intentional Islanding Operation of Distributed Generation System https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5727 <p>This paper presents a complete model of a typical<br>micro-grid and identification of the required control<br>strategies in order to operate this new type of power<br>system. Many problems solve the using of individual<br>distribution generation. A better way to realize the<br>emerging potential of distributed generation is to take<br>a system approach which views generation and<br>associated loads as a subsystem or a “micro-grid”.<br>The micro-grids are new concepts of electrical power<br>consist of Distribution Generation, Renewable<br>Energy Resources and Sensitive as well as Nonsensitive load. These sources are operating in parallel<br>to the grid and it can operate in islanding mode.<br>During the disturbances the generation and load are<br>not match then the load and generation separating<br>islanding mode without harming the transmission line<br>or grid. Intentional islanding describes the condition<br>in which a micro-grid or a portion of the power grid,<br>which consists of a load and a distributed generation<br>system, is isolated from the grid system. In this<br>situation, it is important for the micro-grid to<br>continue to provide adequate power to the load.<br>Under normal operation, each DG inverter system in<br>the micro-grid usually works in constant current<br>control mode in order to provide a preset power to<br>the main grid. When the micro-grid is isolate from<br>the main grid, each DG inverter system must detect<br>this islanding situation and must switch to a voltage<br>control mode. In this mode, the micro-grid will<br>provide a constant voltage to the local load. This<br>paper describes a control strategy that is used to<br>implement grid-connected and intentional-islanding<br>operations of distributed power generation. The<br>control strategies have proven their robustness and<br>effectiveness in controlling the operation of microgrid while maintaining system stability.</p> Sajid Vorha Prof. I.A. Sheikh Associate professor Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A Review of Power System State Estimation by Weighted Least Square Technique https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5728 <p>The control centers of utilities receive<br>abundant raw measurements from power system<br>networks. The measurements may be destroyed or<br>lost while being transmitted to the control centers<br>due to defects in sensors or loss of communication<br>during a natural disaster. In such cases the raw<br>data has to be processed before being used for<br>analysis by various Energy Management System<br>(EMS) applications. State estimation is a computer<br>program that helps to process the raw<br>measurements and determine the power system<br>states from them. Vector consisting of bus voltage<br>magnitudes and their respective bus phase angles<br>are states of an electric power system. In recent<br>years, a wide range of state estimation methods has<br>emerged, and this paper provides an overview of<br>the commonly used state estimation method. It<br>outlines Weighted Least Square Technique and the<br>steps involved in the estimation.</p> C.Vaishnavi Prof. I.A. Sheikh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 MODELLING BOD CONCENTRATION BY USING ADAPTIVE NEURO-FUZZY INFERENCE SYSTEM https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5729 <p>BOD is a parameter frequently used to evaluate<br>the water quality on different rivers. The aim of the present<br>study is to investigate applicability of artificial intelligence<br>techniques such as ANFIS (Adapti ve Neuro-Fuzzy Inference<br>System) in water quality BOD prediction for the case study,<br>Mahi river at Khanpur in Thasara Taluka of Kheda District<br>in Gujarat State, India. The proposed technique combines the<br>learning ability of neural network with the transparent<br>linguistic representation of fuzzy system. ANFIS models with<br>various input structures and membership functions are<br>constructed, trained and tested to evaluate efficiency of the<br>models. Statistical indices such as Root Mean Square Error<br>(RMSE), Correlation Coefficient (R), Coefficient of<br>Determination (R2<br>) and Discrepancy Ratio (D) are used to<br>evaluate performance of the ANFIS models in forecasting<br>BOD. ANFIS model is used for the estimation of BOD<br>concentration.</p> Jayesh S. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Effective study of various proportions of Fine and Coarse Aggregates on fresh and hardened properties of Self Compacting Concrete https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5730 <p>In the present studies, results of an experimental investigation carried out to evaluate the fresh and hardened properties of<br>various mixes w ith varying fine aggregate and coarse aggregate proportions is presented. The fresh properties for filling, passing and<br>segregation resistance are monitored as per EFNARC guidelines w hile hardened properties namely the early age compressive strength<br>development of various specimens for a selected refrence mix is evaluated. The mix proportion of self compacting concrete has a constant<br>water-binder ratio of 0.31 and the super plasticizer dosage was kept 1.5 %. The total binder content is 585 kg/m3<br>. The concrete specimens<br>are cured by normal moist curing under normal atmospheric temperature. Early age strength was determined at 7 days. The experiements<br>were carried out varying the proportions of fine aggregates size particles between 600 micron to 2.36 mm and coarse aggregates of size<br>20mm and 10mm. The results show that there is considerable effect on the fresh properties and early age compressive strength of self<br>compacted concrete, due to varaiation in proportions of fine and coarse aggregates</p> Sabuwala Hasan K Dr. Pamnani Nanak J Dr. Sinha Deepa A Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Assessment and Management of Watershed of Machhu Dam III,Morbi,Gujarat Using Geoinformatics Technology https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5731 <p>Machhu Dam III is located across Machhu River in<br>the Morbi Taluka of Rajkot district. Remote sensing and GIS has<br>been used in determining ground and hydrological conditions of<br>the catchment area. Various thematic layers have been<br>developed, integrated and analyzed for the assessment and<br>management study of the sub watershed area of the Machhu<br>River. Geoinformatics technology has been helpful in the<br>assessment of watershed area of Dam prior to filling of the<br>reservoir for planning and management considering present land<br>use pattern and future water requirements and land use plan.</p> Jaysukh C.Songara N.M. Joshipura Khalid Mehmood Dr. Indra Prakash Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Water and Wastewater Quality Monitoring https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5732 <p>Water and Wastewater are of great concern to any of<br>the developing countries. Bad water quality is creating problem<br>to civilians of country too. These water and wastewater samples<br>are required to bring them to proper standards. Government and<br>private firms are working for proper and perfect reuse of<br>wastewater. Water standards are define by Indian Standard<br>codes, these standard are require for differ use of water such as<br>drinking, washing, cleaning, gardening, etc. water and waste<br>water sample were collected from various industries and waste<br>water treatment plant. Tests are perform on water to found<br>standard of water like DO, TSS, BOD, COD, pH value,<br>alkalinity, turbidity, etc. According to test result treatments are<br>provided to water sample to eliminate more or less proportion of<br>constituent in sample. Pollution can be reduced and water quality<br>can be increase. This indirectly helps civilian as well as earth to<br>reduce pollution from earth.</p> Krunali Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 A STUDY ON PERFORMANCE CHARACTERISTICS OF CRUMB RUBBER MODIFIED BITUMEN FOR VARIOUS BLENDING TEMPERATURE AND BLENDING TIME https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5733 <p>It is extremely important that the modifier is thoroughly mixed with bitumen before the<br>preparation of the bituminous mix so that the modified bitumen retains its premium properties.<br>Different types of modifiers require different techniques of blending. The exact temperature and time<br>of blending depends upon the type and amount of modifier use as it plays very vital role in obtaining<br>the required properties of modified bitumen. In this study the crumb rubber modified bitumen<br>(CRMB) samples are prepared for varying blending temperature and blending time. From the study it<br>is determine that the various properties of CRMB varies with blending temperature and blending<br>time. The optimum blending temperature and blending time found out 1750C and 45 minutes<br>respectively for preparing high quality CRMB.</p> Dipak Rathva Manish Jain Ashish Talati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Advanced Technology used in Topography Survey https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5734 <p>Application of Direct Topographic Methods In<br>general, Land surveys which are a part of topography surveys<br>are mostly carried out by photogrammetry or other remote -<br>sensing processes. Terra model provides superior Digital Terrain<br>Model (DTM) creation and manipulation tools for large<br>projects—Terra model is capable of forming TIN DTMs with up<br>to 8 million points. This makes it the package of choice for<br>manipulating data from airborne or terrestrial laser scanners,<br>photogrammetry projects, and hydrographic multi beam<br>bathymetry systems. Terra model also gives civil engineers a<br>complete tool set for design that enhances capabilities and<br>productivity from the initial survey to final construction. Terra<br>model supports the design of roads, bridges, railways, sewers,<br>surfaces, commercial or residential sites, and new infrastructure<br>with advanced design concepts. Projects are modeled using plan,<br>profile, and cross-section views. Terra model manages large jobs<br>easily as the software handles hundreds of thousands of points<br>and seamlessly integrates survey and construction data in a single<br>project file</p> Ashish V Talati Vaishakhi a talati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Suitability of Rubber Dam as a River Water Management Tool https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5735 <p>—Rubber dam is a relatively new type of hydraulic<br>structure compared with steel sluice gate, weir, causeways, etc.<br>which is made of high strength fabric adhering with rubber<br>forming a rubber bag. The barrage, made of rubber, will be filled<br>with air, so that it can be inflated or deflated as per requirement.<br>The concept of rubber dam and its application in India has yet to<br>develop to gain from its advantages, though the system has been<br>used in great extent in countries like China, Australia and in<br>Scandinavia. It is used in site specific cases where it may prove to<br>be a very good alternative to costlier permanent structures. A<br>rubber dam has many advantages, such as simple hydraulic<br>structure, short construction time, perfect seismic performance,<br>and low resistance to water flow in flood season etc. General<br>description of system, various configuration and types, working<br>principle and comparative analysis has been presented in this<br>paper. Also, its usefulness from various perspectives is highlighted<br>considering the high and low discharge available in the stream,<br>combined with tidal effects of low and high tide due to its close<br>proximity with Arabian sea. The benefits of establishing a rubber<br>dam could be even greater than a multi-purpose reservoir as it<br>entails much lower cost, and construction viability and flexibility<br>with minimum ecological and environmental set-backs. Combined<br>with water management of urban area this could be a very effective<br>tool of river water management, especially for cities near the banks<br>of rivers.</p> Vipin Yadav Darshan Mehta Sahita Waikhom Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Use of Dimensional Analysis to Asses Parameters Correlated to Total Sediment Transport Rate https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5736 <p>Sediment transport, and the rate at which it flows, is a complex problem to understand, as the complexity of the nature of the<br>flow is highly dynamic. Due to the reason many researchers have worked for long period of time and have proposed different approaches<br>based on wide range of flume and field data sets and still continue to work. If data sets are used to understand and hypothesis a theory or<br>to generate an equation then predictability and reliability of it depends highly on on accuracy of the data sets. An attempt is made in the<br>present study to find the correlation between various flow parameters and sediment transport rate based on dimensional analysis using B.<br>R. Samaga et al (1986) data set. Total sediment transport rate has been correlated with 13 flow parameters obtained by dimensional<br>analysis which is computed by computer programming performed under Microsoft office, Excell Spread sheet. From the analysis of the<br>selected data set it is observed that the best correlation was obtained between total sediment transport rate and sediment flow parameter</p> Y. C. Jabbar S. I. Waikhom Dr. S. M. Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 TO STUDY AND DESIGN OF A SEWAGE TREATMENT PLANT AT NANAKWADA, VALSAD https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5737 <p>Nanakwada is a medium sized municipal town in Valsad District with 2014 census population of 2, 20,000<br>currently under consideration for developing its sewerage system. As a suitable sewage treatment plant and disposal<br>facilities will be needed immediately on completion of the conveyance system, it is intended to develop an appropriate design<br>of a sewage treatment plant for the town to be developed in phases. The treatment process envisaged is a conventional one<br>which will be robust and easy to operate to obtain desired quality of treated sewage for disposal into a farming land nearby<br>with a bypass arrangement to a natural drain</p> Savan R. Vaishnani Kuldip.B.Patel Parth S. Rathod Shreyansu P. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Experimental study of compressive and split tensile strength of concrete containing rice-husk ash and coir fibers. https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5738 <p>The present study is carried out for evaluating the influence of Rice-Husk Ash and COIR Fibers in M20 grade concrete. This paper presents the results of compression test and split tensile teston concrete which were casted with various percentage of COIR fibers ranging from 0% to 4% at a regular interval of 1% and Rice-Husk Ash ranging from 0% to 20% at regular<br>interval of 5%. Total 3 cubes and 3 cylinders were casted for each mix design, there were total 17 mix designs, averageresult of 3<br>cubes and 3 cylinders was taken as final compressive strength and tensile strength of that mix design. Out of 51 cubes and 51<br>cylinders,3 cubes and 3 cylinders were casted as control mix (M20 grade concrete without Rice-husk ash and COIR fibers), remaining 48 cubes and 48 cylinders were casted with different percentages of Rice-Husk Ash and COIR fibers. Results clearly<br>indicated that with increase in % of Rice-Husk Ash and COIR fibers the compressive strength and tensile strength of concrete<br>increases, it can be clearly seen that cement can be replaced up to 20% with Rice-Husk Ash and COIR fibers without compromising the compressive and tensile strength. As a result the concrete becomes economical and also impact on environment decreases due to agricultural waste, industrial waste and also due to emission of CO2 gas in environment while manufacturing of cement.</p> Chirag.D.Magnani Hirak.S.Shah Jay.J.Lad Darshan.M.Mali Vatsal. N. Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 “A study of Macroscopic Traffic Stream Parameters for Undivided Collector Streets in India” https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5739 <p>Indian traffic is highly heterogeneous which consist<br>of wide variety of vehicles in terms of static and dynamic<br>characteristics. Due to heterogeneity of traffic, analysis of<br>traffic stream parameter become complex in nature.<br>Collector road is a part of urban street hierarchy whose<br>function is to collect traffic from local streets and distribute<br>the traffic to arterial and sub-arterial streets or vice-versa.<br>Collectors are designed to provide a greater balance between<br>mobility and land access within residential, commercial, and<br>industrial areas. Hence proper planning for collector Street<br>is important for efficiency of network of the urban road<br>system. Hence the traffic characteristics are very important<br>in case of Collector Street. In view of this, attempt has been<br>made to study traffic flow behaviour on macroscopic scale<br>by deriving relationship between speed (V), flow (Q) and<br>density (K) for a selected stretch of collector street.<br>Bhubaneswar the largest city of the Indian state of Orissa is<br>selected for the study. Field traffic surveys were carried out<br>on typical week day and traffic data was extracted. The<br>extracted data are analyzed in terms of vehicle composition,<br>directional split, and space mean speed. Parameters like<br>capacity, optimal density, optimal speed and jam density are<br>derived from the Q-K-V models. Results are compared with<br>the IRC prescribed capacities and also with the traditional<br>Greenshield’s model.</p> Rinkal T. Patel Shree Chetan. R. Patel Dr. G. J. Joshi Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Actual and Analytical status of steel reinforcement on various buiilding projects https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5741 <p>In present economic situation, owners are investing<br>scare resources, worth crores of rupees in countless projects. The<br>investors / owners naturally have a right and are interested in “best<br>value for the money spent” The construction projects, there are<br>numbers of constraints which effect output e.g. Labor,<br>Environment, Location etc. So, Zero wastage is not possible for any<br>type of project. The aim of this study work is to find reasons of<br>material wastage on construction site of multi storied buildings and<br>how it can be minimized. So, overall project cost can be reduced or<br>profit maximized. The study deals with basic contents ( like<br>classification of wastage, definition and mythological issue etc ),<br>various material management functions like reduction of wastage,<br>material storage , site location , Quality control, site security,<br>inventory control etc. the study involves study of five multi storied<br>R.C.C. frame structure building like Educational building, Hospital<br>building, Hostel building. But same approach can also become<br>helpful in complex or industrial project. Data on estimated and<br>actual consumption of major materials mainly: cement collected.<br>For each projects negative variance or wastage worked out. From<br>this wastage, gross wastivity calculated which effected on<br>productivity or project. The analysis of data of various projects<br>indicates that consumption of material or extent of wastage<br>dependent on the various factors like primarily site and space,<br>project management , construction methodology , manpower<br>planning , material and equipment management et</p> Rakesh J. Hingu Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 An Experimental study of high volume flyash concretewith Recron fibers-3 S https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5742 <p>—Fly Ash Concrete applies to engineered concrete<br>systems which have fly ash as a partial replacement of<br>cement. Concrete which has fly ash content more than 35%<br>by mass of the cementitious materials content is termed as<br>High Volume Fly Ash Concrete.Itis<br>recommendedovertheordinaryconcreteasitconsiderably<br>savescementandalsopreventsenvironmental<br>pollution.Theuseoffibersimprovesspecificmaterialproperties<br>oftheconcrete,impactresistance,flexural<br>strength,toughness,fatigueresistance,<br>andductility.Inthispaperanattempt<br>ismadetostudythemechanical propertiesofHighVolumeFlyAshConcretewithadditionoffibersat0.1,0.2,and0.3%ofcement<br>andwith50%flyashreplacementwithcement.Itisfoundthatfiber<br>additions haveincreaseditsstrengthcharacteristics<br>considerably overtheordinarycementconcrete.</p> Hiren D Talati Vatsal N Patel Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Investigating effect of Black Pulp Liquor on the Properties of Concrete https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5745 <p>n the present scenario all over the world, there is trend to investigate the utilization of industrial byproducts in the concrete. In<br>the present study attempt has been made to investigate utilization of Black Pulp Liquor, by product of paper and pulp industry, as plasticizer<br>to reduce the cost of waste disposal and make positive environmental impact. By using Marsh Cone Test, optimum dosage of admixture of<br>cement for the considered w/c ratio has been determined. In the experimental w ork, different six concrete mixes has been studied with<br>partial replacement of natural coarse aggregate by steel slag by 0%, 30% and 50%. Also black pulp liquor as admixture has been used to<br>improve the workability concrete upto its optimum dosage. In the experimental study slump test, compacting factor test and compressive<br>strength test, split strength test were performed to determine the fresh properties of concrete and the hardened properties of concrete at 7<br>day and 28 day respecctively.</p> Jignesh Patel Ekta Kotadiya Mithilesh Pandya Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 PREDICTABILITY OF SEDIMENT TRANSPORT USING SELECTED TRANSPORT FORMULA https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5746 <p>In alluvial rivers the sediment load is transported as bed load, suspended load and wash load. The bed material of an alluvial<br>channel moves as bed load (contact load or saltation load) at low value of average shear stress and they constitute the suspended load at<br>the higher value of shear stress. Prediction of the suspended sediment transport rate is necessary as it is affected by hydrological as w ell<br>as hydraulic characteristics of the alluvial stream. Methods are available for predicting the suspended load transport rate f or uniform<br>sediments. How ever, limited studies exist for non-uniform sediment transport. Microscopic approach of Swamee and Ojha (1991) which<br>considers the non-uniformity of sediment is used in the present study to compute the suspended load transport rate. Suspended load<br>transport formula is tested against Samaga et al flume data set (1984b) for four sediment mixtures (M-1, M-2, M-3 &amp; M-4). The data set is<br>peculiar as it has varying size of sediments in mixture w ith different mean diameter of sediments and geometric deviation for each mixture.<br>Suspended load function is also tested using Sacramento River data measured at two USGS gauging station namely Butte city and<br>Colusa, California. Performance of the Swamee and Ojha’s suspended load function has been evaluated using statistical parameters such<br>as Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), Discrepancy Ratio (r) and Inequality Coefficient (U). Predicted results for the suspended load<br>transport rate are w ithin the wide error range of -9% to +4200% for all the four mixtures and hence failed to provide satisfactory results.<br>Predicted results for the Sacramento River data also scatters in w ide range of errors (1063%) providing better results as compared to<br>mixture M-1 of Samaga et al flume data set.</p> M.S. Shah Dr. S. M. Yadav S. I. Waikhom Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Comparison of losses due to pre-stressing in concrete box girder and steel plate girder https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5747 <p>Design of PSC multi-cell box girder is<br>carried out by considering the data of existing bridge.<br>The analysis is carried out by preparing a bridge model<br>in SAP2000. Using the analysis value of same model<br>design of box carried out. For the design of deck slab,<br>separate model is created by considering different IRC<br>class loadings. Then pre-stressing force is found out to<br>counteract deformation due to dead load considering all<br>the loss calculation. At last different checks are carried<br>out to check the serviceability of structure.<br>The need for conservation of important construction<br>material like steel has motivated divergent thinking<br>amongst Engineers. Pre-stressed Metal Structures have<br>proved to be economical as compared to normal Metal<br>Structures and many such structures have been existing<br>in Europe and USA.<br>Comparison of losses in pre-stressing is done<br>between PSC multi-cell box girder and Pre-stressed<br>steel plate girder to check the economy.</p> Asst. Proff. Pratiti Maulik Bhatt Asst. Proff Sandip P. Mistry Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Parking space demand study on the busy corridor of Modasa Town https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5748 <p>One of the problems created by road traffic is<br>parking. Not only do vehicles require street space to<br>move about, but also do they require space to park.<br>Every vehicle owner would wish to park their<br>vehicles closely as possible near to their destination<br>so to minimize their walking. This results in a great<br>demand for parking space in the CBD where the<br>activities are concentrated.<br>In Modasa town due to the lack of parking facilities<br>on the busy corridor faces the parking problems like<br>delay of vehicles travel time, congestions,<br>accidents, no utilization of footpaths.<br>This paper reports the on-street parking behavior<br>and the analysis of parking space demand study on<br>the busy corridor of Modasa town and some<br>remedial measures to overcome these problems.</p> Nagar Harikant Sisodiya Dharmendra Shah Dhruvit Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 FMEA RISK MANAGEMENT TECHNIQUE FOR QUALITY CONTROL OF RMC PRODUCTION https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5749 <p>Concrete is the most extensively used among all<br>the construction material and is frequently<br>considered as the most economical and durable<br>material. For effective quality and productivity<br>improvement of infrastructure projects,<br>statistical quality control (SQC) application<br>proves to be an important tool which can be<br>used in order to ensure that concrete produced<br>is of desired quality. In order to identify the<br>major failure mode in production of Ready<br>Mixed Concrete (RMC) of different grades<br>(M20,M25,M30) FMEA is used. The Failure<br>Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique is to<br>identify risk factors for the potential failure<br>mode in the production process of concrete and<br>to take the appropriate corrective actions for<br>improvement.The risk priority number results<br>indicate’s process failure in terms of irregular<br>grading process, material testing prior use in<br>mixing process which were the important factor<br>to be monitored for quality control.</p> Prof.Jyoti Trivedi Dr.Chakradhar Iyunni Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 STABILIZATION OF EXPANSIVE SOIL https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5750 <p>Soil stabilization is one of most important for the construction<br>which is widely used in foundation construction because it<br>improves the engineering properties of soil such as strength,<br>volume stability and durability. The projects such as<br>highways, railways, water reservoirs, reclamation etc. requires<br>earth material in very large quantity. The soil is stabilised by<br>using flash ash as admixture in percentage of 10 to 30.</p> NILAM PRAJAPATI MINAL PATEL KEYUR SHAH Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Comparative Study of Design of an Industrial Workshop with Pre-Engineering Building https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5751 <p>Long Span, Column free structures are the most essential in any type of industrial structures. Pre-Engineered Building (PEB) concept is a new concept in<br>the construction of single storey steel industrial building which fulfils this requirement along with reduced time and cost as compared to conventional structures. The<br>objective of this paper is to analyze and designs a Pre-Engineered Building (PEB) using cold formed steel ‘Z’ purlin section and compare it with Conventional Steel<br>Building (CSB) with fink type truss. The objective is achieved by designing a typical frame system o f a proposed Industrial Workshop Building using both the<br>concepts and analyzing the designed frames using the structural analysis and design software Staad Pro V8i.</p> Mansi B Solanki Tausif F Kauswala Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 RELATION BETWEEN CURING TECHNIQUE AND EARLY AGE COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF SELF COMPACTING CONCRETE https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5752 <p>Self-Compacting Concrete (SCC) is highly workable concrete with high strength and high performance that can flow under its<br>ow n weight through restricted sections without segregation and bleeding. It is observed that the behaviour of the design concrete mix is<br>significantly affected by many factors including variation in humidity and temperature both in fresh and hardened state. In this paper effect<br>of few selected curing techniques on early age (3 &amp; 7 days) compressive strength of M30 grade self-compacting concrete (SCC) is<br>discussed. It is observed that immersion method for curing gives maximum compressive strength while the low est compressive strength is<br>for ice curing. It is also observed that SCC can prove effective in sea water curing.</p> Dr. Pamnani Nanak J Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Review on “ Effect of Smear on Consolidation by Radial Seepage Flow Using PVD” https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5753 <p>The installation of vertical drains with a mandrel causes significant disturbance of the subsoil surrounding the mandrel, resulting in a<br>smear zone. The smear zone affects the consolidation of the soil. This paper presents a new analytical solution for the consolidation<br>analysis of soil with a vertical drain. this zone retards the horizontal consolidation of soft clays in the vicinity of PVD. The characteristics<br>of the smear zone, such as its extent and hydraulic conductivity remain discrepant among investigators. This study attempts to determine<br>the extent of the smear zone and to measure the hydraulic conductivity of the smear zone directly by laboratory tests.</p> R. P. Shrivastava D. T. Shete A. V. Shroff Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Laboratory Investigation Of Use Of Geo-Synthetic Material in Marshall Mix Design https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5754 <p>In India there are limited manufacturing facilities for<br>geo-synthetics, which compel us to import a large quantity. The<br>main purpose of this study is to use any such locally available<br>material, which is naturally and abundantly available in our<br>country. Reliance Industry Ltd. has prepared geo-synthetic<br>material like needle punch, spun bond. A Geo-synthetic material<br>when used with asphalt concrete has shown a serviceable life<br>equivalent to that of an overlay. On the Marshall Mix design,<br>OBC was calculated and prepared a Marshall moulds using geosynthetic material as well as without geo-synthetic material. The<br>Geo-synthetic material was placed as a intra layer in Marshall<br>moulds and stability was found.</p> Vaishakhi a talati Ashish V Talati Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Utilization of Waste Plastic in Construction of Pavement https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5755 <p>The aim of paper is to analyze &amp; study how the<br>waste plastic will be effectively utilized in construction of<br>pavement as a binder material for replacing the content of<br>bitumen and in detail process &amp; its successful application In<br>an Indian city solid waste management is the thrust area. Of<br>this various waste materials, plastic waste and municipal solid<br>waste are of great concern. On the other side, the road traffic is<br>increasing, traffic intensity is increasing. The load bearing<br>capacities of the road are to be increased. Plastic waste can be<br>used as a coating over aggregate and this coated stone can be<br>used for road construction. The mix polymer coated aggregate<br>have shown higher strength. Use of this mix for road<br>construction helps to use plastics waste. Once the plastic waste<br>is separated from municipal solid waste, the organic matter<br>can be converted to use</p> H. K. SHARMA Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 ASSESING THE PREDICTABILITY OF TOTAL SEDIMENT TRANSPORT RATE FOR UNIT STREAM POWER APPROACH https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5756 <p>Sediment transport is a significant factor in effective design of hydraulic structures and open channel water conveyance. Estimation of the<br>amount of sediment material w hich a specific flow can carry is one of the major issues of sedimentation research. Unit stream power is defined as the<br>time rate of potential energy per unit weight of water, and is found to be the dominant factor in the determination of total sediment concentration being<br>carried by the (Yang, 1972). Yang’s (1979) unit stream power approach for total load sediment transport function is applied to test the predictability of<br>total sediment transport rate by using flume data sets of Samaga et al (1986), Willis et al (1972) and river data set of Middle Loup river of Hubbel et al<br>(1959). The performance of the Yang’s sediment transport function for different data sets has been evaluated by finding statistical parameters, such as<br>root mean square error (RMSE), discrepancy ratio and inequality coefficient. From the evaluation, it is observed that the Yang (1979) total load function<br>under predicts the sediment transport rate for the three mixtures M1, M2, M3 and predicts well for mixture M4 of Samaga et.al data set giving good result<br>compared to other mixtures. For both Willis et al (1972) data set and the river data of Hubbel et al (1959) total load function of Yang (1979), both under<br>predicts as well as over predicts sometimes.Yang total load equation gives better results for samaga et al (1986) data sets for the four mixture.</p> H. N.Prajapati S. I. Waikhom Dr. S. M. Yadav V.G.Yadav Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 TRIP MAKING BEHAVIOUR IN THE MODASA TOWN (Gujarat) https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5757 <p>For a small town transportation planning involves<br>travel demand modeling in which trip generation plays a<br>effective role. A travel demand model that considers<br>socioeconomic factors based on anticipated land use,<br>household and employment changes. A survey estimates the<br>trip generations and choice of transport modes in the given<br>study area. The travel demand quantify by conducting Home<br>Interview Survey in the given study area. From this survey<br>how many trips made in the study area in terms of trip<br>purpose, mode of travel, travel time can be quantify. These<br>data helps to statistical models development by considering<br>population, employment, socioeconomic characteristics. The<br>travel characteristics are estimated from the travel demand<br>model For the present population and employment</p> H. K. SHARMA J. P. PANDYA S. A. DHUWAD Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Accident Analysis and Suggesting Improvements for the road link joining to Lalpur kampa to Rajendranagar chokdi (SH 59) in Modasa Taluka. https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5758 <p>An accident black spot is a term used in road<br>safety management to denote a place where road<br>traffic accidents have historically been<br>concentrated. It may have occurred for a variety<br>of reasons, such as a sharp drop or corner in a<br>straight road, so oncoming traffic is concealed, a<br>hidden junction on a fast road, poor or<br>concealed warning signs at cross-roads.<br>Transportation contributes to the economic,<br>industrial, social and cultural development of<br>any country. Transportation by road is the only<br>mode which could give maximum service to one<br>and all. Due to the increase in population,<br>number of vehicles is increasing day by day<br>which leads to the increase in road network. It<br>has been estimated that over 30,000 persons die<br>and over 10 to 15 million persons are injured<br>every single year in road accidents throughout<br>the world. The present work intended to analyze<br>a black spot (accident prone location) Rajendranagar chokdi in Modasa Town. The causes of<br>accidents are studied and suggested different<br>remedial measures to reduce number of<br>accidents</p> Parikh M.S. Pandya J.U Shaikh S.S Patel G.S. Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Study of Storm water Problem at Akhbarnagar Underpass (Ahmedabad) https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5759 <p>Akhbarnagar underpass is one of the major underpasses of<br>city Ahmedabad. Every year Akhbarnagar underpass is filled up with<br>water due to rain, which causes many difficulties to public in traffic,<br>water logging in nearby areas and creates many other problems like<br>spread of diseases. It is necessary to overcome this problem. To solve<br>these problems proper study of area i.e. different levels of underpass<br>and nearby areas, pumping requirement to remove water from<br>underpass, sewer network analysis, required. The study can be<br>helpful in finding solution by redesign of rain water drainage lines.<br>Also it can be useful to implement at other underpasses which have<br>the common problem</p> Abhishek Rameshbhai Patel Prof. Hemal S. Parekh Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Application of Fuzzy logic in Noise Pollution & Air Quality - Review https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5760 <p>Fuzzy means blurred, indistinct in shape or outline. In modern mathematical society, fuzzy is defined as a branch of modern mathematics<br>that w as formulated by Zadeh 1965 to model vagueness intrinsic in human cognitive process and to solve ill-defined and complicated problems because<br>of ambiguous, incomplete, vague, and imprecise information that characterize the real-world system.Fuzzy logic has become a common w ay of dealing<br>with information in various fields, such as control theory, smart machines, and investment analysis.Fuzzy Logic applications have been used in field of<br>environmnental engineering field as well. Various research works has been carried out on different aspects of environment engineering such as Air quality, Noise Pollution, Water Qualty, Environment Impact Assessment, Solid waste Management.In this paper an effort has been made to review such application of fuzzy logic in Air Quality assessment and Noise Pollution using case studies.</p> K. A.Chitnis A.K.Khambete Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 Pesticide Industry:A Review of 12th Five Year Plan https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5761 <p>Pesticide Industry is one of the important industries in Indian Economy and vital for food and nutritional security of nation.With<br>diminishing cultivable land resources,ensuring food security for more than one billion Indians is hercules task.Agricultural production and<br>protection technology have to play a crucial role in order to meet the needs of growing population.Substantial food production is lost due to<br>insect pests,plant pathogens,weeds,rodents,birds,nemates,etc.This paper focuses on various angles related to pesticide industry keeping<br>in mind 12th Five Year Plan.</p> Mr.Randhavane Shrikant B Dr.Mrs.A.K.Khambete Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13 “REVIEW & STUDY PAPER OF UNDERGROUND CABLES FOR 11KV TRANSMISSION LINE” https://ijaerd.com/index.php/IJAERD/article/view/5762 <p>- Electrical energy is one of the most important<br>factors for the developments of any country. But the<br>generation of electrical energy is not possible at any<br>place. So, to provide electricity from source to load<br>transmission line is needed. Generally two types of<br>transmission line are available. I) Overhead transmission<br>line &amp; II) Undergrond transmission line. This paper shows<br>the benefits of underground line over overhead line.<br>Overhead transmission line has some drawbacks and<br>increases the efficiency &amp; reliability of transmission line<br>underground transmission line is takes place. There are<br>different types of underground cables are available for<br>transmission of electrical power. Here three types of<br>underground cables are given.<br>So, this paper shows the details of different kind<br>of cables and one is suit able for the long transmission<br>line and</p> MAURYA RAJKUMAR R BHATT MAYUR V 2 SHARMA VIKAS K DAVE DHAVAL B Copyright (c) 2022 2022-04-27 2022-04-27 2 13